Category Archives: Orphaned Gorillas

Kaboko, World’s Only Captive Male Mountain Gorilla, Passes Away

I’m afraid we have some very sad news that we weren’t able to publicize right away because of security concerns in the DRC. At approximately 5:30 a.m. on Wednesday, July 25, Kaboko, the world’s only captive male mountain gorilla, passed away at the Senkwekwe Center mountain gorilla sanctuary at the Virunga National Park headquarters in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. His death came as fighting raged between the Congolese army and the M23 rebels less than a mile from the center.

Kaboko, who had a history of gastrointestinal problems, suddenly became ill with vomiting and bloody diarrhea on July 24. With guidance from Gorilla Doctors veterinarians, who are responsible for the health care of the mountain gorilla orphans living at the Senkwekwe Center, Virunga National Park staff members treated him with antibiotics and oral fluids. Gorilla Doctors veterinarians were ready and willing to travel to the park by road and air, but were not able to reach the sanctuary due to the intense fighting surrounding the park headquarters.

“It is a very sad time for the Gorilla Doctors, the Virunga National Park staff, and the other orphan mountain gorillas, as we have lost our close friend Kaboko,” said Dr. Mike Cranfield, Co-Director of Gorilla Doctors, a veterinary team dedicated to saving the lives of Africa’s critically endangered mountain gorillas. “Kaboko has been under our care since 2007, when he was rescued from poachers and required surgery to amputate his right hand, which had been very severely injured by a snare. It is a shame that we were not able to reach him this time, but we are grateful for the dedication of the Virunga National Park staff, who made valiant attempts to save Kaboko as best they could, and who have bravely remain at the Senkwekwe Center to care for the other gorillas despite the war at their doorstep.”

Nine-year-old Kaboko lived at the Senkwekwe Center with 11-year-old adult female Maisha and five-year-old juvenile females Ndakasi and Ndeze. All four were born to wild mountain gorilla parents in Virunga National Park, but were orphaned by events involving humans conducting illegal activities in the park. In addition to losing his hand, Kaboko suffered from mental trauma as a result of his ordeal and was depressed and solitary for more than a year after his confiscation. Kaboko eventually grew to trust his human caretakers and the other orphans but remained a shy, somewhat nervous gorilla. In the last year and a half of his life he suffered from ongoing bouts of diarrhea, which were successfully treated with antibiotics and anti-parasitic drugs.

Much of the southern sector of Virunga National Park, which is home to about 200 of the world’s remaining 786 mountain gorillas, has been under rebel control since May 8 when a group of 1,500 troops defected from the Congolese army and formed the M23 militia. The Virunga National Park headquarters at Rumangabo has remained in control of the park rangers, however. Safe travel between Goma, the regional capital where Gorilla Doctors maintains an office, and Rumangabo has not been possible for much of this time period.

On July 26, Kaboko’s body was transported back to Goma where the Gorilla Doctors performed a post-mortem exam. The veterinarians suspect that Kaboko succumbed to a severe bacterial infection of the small intestine. Tissue and fluid samples collected during the necropsy will be sent to the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine in the U.S. to be examined by Gorilla Doctors Pathologist Dr. Linda Lowenstine to determine the exact cause of Kaboko’s illness.

For more information please contact:

Molly Feltner, Communications Officer,[email protected] +1-857-719-9258

Detailed Kaboko biography

Sound recording of fighting happening near Virunga National Park headquarters on July 25

Background article on the war in Virunga

Donor Story: Raemonde Bezenar and the Canadian Friends of MGVP

You could say that the mountain gorillas themselves are the best fundraisers for their conservation. Many tourists, after seeing mountain gorillas in the wild for the first time, have become ardent supporters of conservation projects in Rwanda, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. That’s definitely the case for Raemonde Bezenar, one of our biggest fans, who has raised tens of thousands of dollars for Gorilla Doctors and two of our key partners, Virunga National Park and the Mountain Gorilla Conservation Project. Raemonde has made generous personal donations and raised money hosting fundraising dinners and the annual Edmonton Gorilla 5K Fun Run.

Below, Raemonde details how she became involved with the Gorilla Doctors and the special relationship she has with the mountain gorilla orphans and their caretaker, Virunga National Park ranger Andre Bauma, at the Senkwekwe Center, which she helped build.

In 2007, I travelled to Uganda and Rwanda, home of the mountain gorillas. I arranged to do 9 gorilla treks, 4 in Uganda and 5 in Rwanda. Little did I know that the experience of seeing the gorillas in their natural habitat would change me forever. It is something so very special that it is hard to put into words. The only thing that I can say is that I left feeling like I really knew the gorillas, as I would know good friends. Knowing how endangered mountain gorillas are, I felt obligated to do whatever I could to help protect them and their environment.

I returned home to Edmonton, Alberta, and founded the Canadian Friends of the Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project (CFMGVP), which became a nonprofit society on June 23, 2008. I spoke with Dr. Mike Cranfield, then Executive Director of MGVP (now Co-Director of Gorilla Doctors), about potential projects to support and he mentioned the Senkwekwe Center at Virunga National Park. At the time, mountain gorilla orphans Ndakasi and Ndeze, who had been rescued as infants in 2007 when their mothers were killed, lived at a house in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo. The park and MGVP wanted to move the orphans to a location where the environment and altitude would be close to what mountain gorillas experience in the wild. I asked Dr. Cranfield how much that would cost. He said $30,000.

I thought about that and made the decisions to donate the required amount of money for the 40M X 40M enclosure for the orphaned gorillas. It was an unconditional gift for an incredible species. Soon after, the enclosure was built and Ndakasi and Ndeze were successfully transferred to their new home at the Senkwekwe Center in Virunga National Park.

In 2009, I returned to Africa and finally had the chance to meet the mountain gorilla orphans and their caretaker Andre Bauma. I knew all about how Andre had helped save Ndakasi after her mother’s death and then had taken care of her and Ndeze from the day they both were rescued. When Andre and I met for the first time, we opened our arms, embraced, and cried. It was a great moment.

I have the highest regard for Andre because of his dedication to the conservation of nature. The sacrifices that Andre has made and continues to make for the safety of the orphaned mountain gorillas Ndakasi and Ndeze, and now also Maisha and Kaboko, is very unique. He is protecting his children as any good parent would.

This year the proceeds from the Edmonton Gorilla 5K Fun Run will go towards supporting veterinary care for the orphan mountain gorillas at Senkwekwe. Now that conflict has enveloped Virunga National Park it’s more important than ever to support the people who care for the gorillas. It is because of donations from people like you and me that, despite many challenges, mountain gorillas are still thriving in Africa. I believe that this is something of which we should all be proud.

You can follow the Gorilla Doctors health monitoring efforts on our Facebook page, where we post photos and notes from our monthly visits.

Please consider supporting MGVP by making a secure online donation. Every dollar you give goes to directly supporting our gorilla health programs and One Health initiative. Thank you for your generosity.

DNA Tests Reveal Orphan Ihirwe to be a Grauer’s Gorilla

By Dr. Noel

From July 23 to 27, 2011, all Gorilla Doctors veterinarians were involved in the huge and exciting event of moving the six Grauer’s gorillas that had been in the Gorilla Doctors care for years from out interim orphan quarantine facility in Kinigi, Rwanda to the GRACE sanctuary in DRC. However, only two weeks later on the night of August 7, we got a call from the Volcanoes National Park Chief Warden Prosper Uwingeli reporting the confiscation of a baby gorilla in Gisenyi, Rwanda, on the border with DRC. Prosper asked for veterinary assistance, so team of two Gorillas Doctors and one experienced gorilla caretaker packed up and drove to the police station where the gorilla was being held. They found the poor baby gorilla very stressed and coughing with a nasal discharge and poor body conditions.

After preliminary exam, the baby was brought to our quarantine facility for care and treatment. Two more caretakers were hired and I was appointed to be the gorilla’s chief veterinarian. After only two days, the baby started improving and exploring the new area.

The next after the confiscation, we asked the caretakers to choose a name for her and they named her ”Ihirwe”. This is a Kinyarwanda name and means “luck” or “chance” it we used it to express how lucky she was to be saved from the poachers.

Before her confiscation the poachers who had her said she was kept in their house in a sack and fed potatoes and sugar canes for two weeks. In our facility we introduced her to new food including baby formula, fruits and vegetables from the market and also forest food like wild celery. For the first couple days we had troubles with the baby formula because she refused it but we kept trying to feed it to her through a syringe and surprisingly this become her favorite food.

Since she has been under the Gorilla Doctors’ care, Ihirwe has grown very close to her caretakers and me. Whenever I enter the facility she looks happy and receptive, and runs after me and climbs up on me, although she checks to see whether I am carrying any medical equipment first to make sure she is not getting a shot or otherwise restrained for an exam. If I have nothing, then we are very good friends.

When Ihirwe came into our care, we were not able to state firmly whether she was a mountain gorilla or a Grauer’s gorilla.

There was some confusion on Ihirwe’s subspecies because the poachers said she was taken from the Bukima area of Virunga National Park, which is where mountain gorillas live. However, some people thought Ihirwe’s face appeared to look more like that of a Grauer’s gorilla than a mountain gorilla. The only way to know for sure was DNA testing. This would very important for her future because a mountain gorilla orphan would move to the Senkwekwe Center at Virunga National Park to join Maisha, Kaboko, Ndeze, and Ndakasi and a Grauer’s gorilla would move to GRACE to join the other Grauer’s gorillas.

I really hoped Ihirwe was a mountain gorilla because then I would be able to visit her often at Senkwekwe. GRACE is difficult to reach, so I would have very little chance to see her.

We collected blood, feces, and hair samples from Ihirwe and sent them to the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany for analysis. The results came back that Ihirwe is a Grauer’s gorilla. We are making plans to send her to GRACE in the next few months.

I am happy Ihirwe will soon be with other gorillas but I am very sad to lose my friend! I will never forget how stressed she was when she was confiscated and when she fell out of a tree knocking out her teeth and how I was there to help her.

Background Notes on Grauer’s Gorillas

Mountain and Grauer’s or Eastern Lowland gorillas are two different subspecies within the Eastern Gorilla Species. They are very similar genetically but are adapted to live in different environments. Mountain gorillas live at higher altitudes in the Virunga Massif and Bwindi Impenetrable Forest and have thick black hair coats to insulate their bodies from the cool mountain climate. Grauer’s gorillas live in lower altitude forests through Eastern DRC and have slightly larger bodies and less hair than mountain gorillas. The Gorilla Doctors provide veterinary to both Eastern Gorilla subspecies, although Grauer’s gorillas are much more difficult to monitor due to the insecurity of the regions where they live.

Historically, three quarters of the gorilla orphans that have come into the Gorilla Doctors care have been Grauer’s gorillas. Because many of areas where Grauer’s gorillas live in Eastern DRC are not well protected due to rebel activity, it is easier for poachers to access Grauer’s gorilla groups than mountain gorilla groups. Poacher’s target infant gorillas because of the gorillas’ perceived value as exotic pets in the illegal wildlife market.

You can follow the Gorilla Doctors health monitoring efforts on our Facebook page, where we post photos and notes from our monthly visits.

Please consider supporting MGVP by making a secure online donation. Every dollar you give goes to directly supporting our gorilla health programs and One Health initiative. Thank you for your generosity.

Tree-Climbing Ihirwe Knocks Teeth Out After Falling

Approaching the age of 2, orphan Ihirwe is quite a rambunctious little gorilla and grows bolder by the day. People passing by the MGVP’s gorilla quarantine facility in Kinigi even at a distance might glimpse Ihirwe scrambling in tree branches high above the ground. It’s amazing to think that a baby could be so brave and agile! But like any infant, Ihirwe sometimes gets into trouble on her adventures. Several days ago Ihirwe fell out of a tree and nearly knocked her two front teeth out. Fortunately the Gorilla Doctors are always ready and nearby to take care of medical problems affecting mountain gorilla orphans. Below is Dr. Noel’s report about Ihirwe’s accident.

Ihirwetooth3On January 20, caretakers reported that Ihirwe was climbing a tree in the enclosure when she suddenly fell from a height of about 3 meters. She landed on her face and appeared to have hurt her mouth. There was a small amount of bleeding for approximately two minutes.

The caretakers called the MGVP office and Dr. Dawn and I drove to Kinigi to check on Ihirwe. When we arrived, Ihirwe appeared frightened but otherwise bright, alert, and responsive. No signs of neurological deficits were observed.  She even drank a bottle of milk shortly after the fall.

Her mouth looked painful however and she was moving her tongue frequently. Two incisors (left mandibular I1 and I2) had been knocked forward, but not out, and I observed a mild hemorrhage along the associated gingival laceration.  Her jaw appeared stable with no sign of a fracture.

We decided to treat her with pain medicine and an antibiotic to prevent infection.  Later in the day the caretakers reported that she was eating normally. I visited her again the next day and she looked well. She did not show any signs of pain while eating. I looked at her mouth and her two incisors had loosened even more and flipped forward. The teeth are still attached to the gingival, but likely they will fall out on their own in time. These are baby teeth, so the early loss of the incisors will not impact her future.

ihirwetooth1The caretakers will report back to me if they notice any signs of trouble, but I think Ihirwe is on the mend.

You can follow the Gorilla Doctors health monitoring efforts on our Facebook page, where we post photos and notes from our monthly visits.

Please consider supporting MGVP by making a secure online donation. Every dollar you give goes to directly supporting our gorilla health programs and One Health initiative. Thank you for your generosity.

BREAKING NEWS: Mountain Gorilla Orphan Confiscated from Poachers in Rwanda

examnewmgorphan-4Musanze, Rwanda – On Sunday, August 7, police in the town of Gisenyi, Rwanda, arrested a group of Congolese and Rwandan men after they were caught smuggling an infant mountain gorilla from the neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to Rwanda. Veterinarians from the Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project (MGVP), a nonprofit organization dedicated to conserving gorillas through health care, were called to the scene to help the infant. While primarily working with wild gorillas, MGVP also provides care to gorillas orphaned as a result of the illegal wildlife trade or armed conflict.

“The MGVP team arrived at the Gisenyi police station at 10 pm to find a very stressed, exhausted mountain gorilla infant of less than one year of age,” says Dr. Jan Ramer, Regional Veterinary Manager of MGVP. The arrested men claimed that the gorilla was taken from the Bukima area of Virunga National Park in DRC. They said they had kept the gorilla for about a week, feeding him bananas and sugar cane. No other details were provided.

“MGVP Orphan Caretaker Fabien Bahati, who has raised many orphan gorillas, scooped the gorilla up, and after a discussion with police we headed to Kinigi, Rwanda, to reopen the MGVP Orphan Quarantine Facility,” says Dr. Ramer. MGVP closed this facility only two weeks ago after transferring six resident Grauer’s gorilla orphans to the GRACE sanctuary in DRC.

“We got to Kinigi around midnight and did a short health inspection of the little boy: He had a very bad cough and a runny nose, but was strong,” says Dr. Ramer. “Fabien stayed with him overnight, and this morning the gorilla is even stronger.”

MGVP will work in close partnership with the Congolese and Rwandan wildlife authorities (L’Institut Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature and the Rwanda Development Board), the International Gorilla Conservation Program, and Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International (DFGFI) to determine the best course of action for the gorilla’s future. The orphan will most likely be transferred to the Senkwekwe center in Virunga National Park, which is currently home to four other orphan mountain gorillas: Ndeze, Ndakasi, Maisha, and Kaboko. In the meantime, the gorilla rescued last night will undergo a 30-day health quarantine at the Kinigi facility, where he will receive 24-hour care provided by the MGVP staff and DFGFI Orphan Caretaker Jean De Dieu.

“We are cautiously optimistic for this little guy—he is tense, but accepting of people, and is eating,” says Dr. Ramer. “All are good signs for his eventual recovery.”

About Mountain Gorillas

With only 786 individuals left in the world, mountain gorillas are a critically endangered population. Mountain gorillas live in central Africa, with about 480 animals living in the 173-square-mile Virunga Volcanoes Massif, which combines Volcanoes National Park in Rwanda, Virunga National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Mgahinga National Park in Uganda. The remaining population lives within the boundaries of the 128-square-mile Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in Uganda.

About the Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project

The Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project, a U.S.-based nonprofit organization, is dedicated to saving mountain gorilla lives. With so few animals left in the world today, the organization believes it is critical to ensure the health and well being of every individual possible. The organization’s international team of veterinarians, the Gorilla Doctors, is the only group providing wild mountain gorillas with direct, hands-on care. The Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project partners with the UC Davis Wildlife Health Center to advance One Health strategies for mountain gorilla conservation. www.gorilladoctors.org

About the UC Davis Wildlife Health Center

The UC Davis Wildlife Health Center, home of the Mountain Gorilla One Health Program and a center of excellence within the School of Veterinary Medicine, is composed of 13 epidemiologists, disease ecologists and ecosystem health clinicians and their staff working at the cutting edge of pathogen emergence and disease tracking in ecosystems. It benefits from the expertise of 50 other participating UC Davis faculty members from many disciplines who are involved in the discovery and synthesis of information about emerging zoonotic diseases (those transmitted between people and animals) and ecosystem health. Its mission is to balance the needs of people, wildlife and the environment through research, education and service. www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/whc.

Media Contact

Molly Feltner, MGVP Communications Officer

[email protected]

+1-857-719-9258

Please consider supporting MGVP by making a secure online donation. Every dollar you give goes to directly supporting our gorilla health programs and One Health initiative. Thank you for your generosity.

For the most up-to-date information about the Gorilla Doctors, “like” our Facebook page. You’ll find gorilla health reports, news items, photos, videos, and links to related content.

Busy Times in Kinigi as Orphans Prepare for Move to DR Congo

The past few weeks have proved to be busy at the Kinigi orphan facility as we prepare the mountain gorillas for their move to the Senkwekwe Center in Virunga National Park and the Grauer’s gorillas for their move to Grace (Gorilla Rehabilitation and Conservation Education) in Kasuo.

The gorillas have been enjoying a fair amount of additional enrichment. Their transport crates are set inside their enclosure for them to explore and familiarize with.
Maisha learn to take juice on her lip.
A new game of sweet/bitter juice given in small portions by a syringe on the bottom lip has been started each evening and morning. When familiar with this procedure, the gorillas will likely take their oral sedatives on the transfer day. Sounds simple, but it took a fair amount of training for the keepers and gorillas to take the dose of juice in a way which will be useful for medication. If a gorilla takes the medicine on the tongue (which they invariably try to do) she or he may spit it out if the taste is not enjoyable. On the other hand, if they receive medication on the inner surface of the lower lip, where there are no taste buds, it will smudge all over their big lip before they even taste it. Too late to spit it then and the medication will be easily absorbed!

New keepers have come from DR Congo to spend some weeks in Kinigi in order to meet and build the base for their future relationships with the gorillas. Even if meeting the new people is stressful at the beginning, after few days the gorillas will adjust and start enjoying their new friends.
Andre says hello to Tumaini
This week most of the Kinigi orphans happily welcomed Andre Bauma-Muhindo, a Congolese Wildlife Authority (ICCN) ranger and the head gorilla caretaker at Senkwekwe Center in Virunga National Park. He came from Rumangabo to meet mountain gorilla orphans Maisha and Kaboko before they join Ndeze and Ndakasi, who are under his care at the Senkwekwe Center. Andre has never before worked with Maisha and Kaboko, but the Grauer’s gorillas orphans, especially Pinga and Tumaini, are his old friends. He helped care for them after they were confiscated in DR Congo years ago. It was amazing to see Pinga, who never welcomes new visitors nicely, to say hello to Andree in a friendly calm manner. She obviously remembered him even after years of separation!
Pinga, who never welcomes uknown people well, was perfectly happy with Andre's first visit after years!
The gorillas are being moved in accordance with the Confiscated Gorilla Scientific Advisory Committee, which is composed of representatives from Rwanda, DR Congo, and Uganda; the Transboundary Secretariate; and the NGO’s participating in gorilla conservation in the area including the Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project, Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International, and the International Gorilla Conservation Programme. They are going to semi-free ranging situations where they can learn to be more independent in the forest. The caregivers known to the animals will accompany them for at least the first two to three months to help them with the transition. The ideal end goal is reintroduction to the wild, but this will only be done after careful consideration of their progress on an annual basis.

Gorilla Doctors Eddy and Jacque will continue to provide veterinary care for the mountain gorilla orphans at the Senkwekwe Center, Ndeze and Ndakasi, and soon Maisha and Kaboko. We’ll miss them in Rwanda, but know this is the best situation for these wonderful creatures.

Please consider supporting MGVP by making a secure online donation. Every dollar you give goes to directly supporting our gorilla health programs and One Health initiative. Thank you for your generosity.

For the most up-to-date information about the Gorilla Doctors, “like” our Facebook page. You’ll find gorilla health reports, news items, photos, videos, and links to related content.

GOMA to GRACE

Blog by: Dr. Eddy Kambale
MGVP DRC In-Country Field Veterinarian

Mapendo, Amani, Kighoma and Ndjingala, the four orphan Grauer’s gorillas who have been living in Goma since they were confiscated from poachers, have moved to a new home in the forest. These four little gorillas have been under the direct care of Gorilla Doctors of the Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project and Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International (DFGFI) caregivers, and are now happy and healthy after their traumatic and illegal removal from their families. Last week these young, critically endangered species were transferred to a new home called Gorilla Rehabilitation and Conservation Education Centre (GRACE) located at Kasugho, Lubero Territory, North-Kivu province. We had the generous help of MONUC, a UN peace keeping organization who supplied the helicopter that was necessary to get us from Goma to GRACE quickly. GRACE is a very large center, and very similar to gorilla natural habitat with natural forest food.

goma_01Mapendo in a pensive mood.

Pre-shipment health and behavioral exams showing good results were performed by Gorilla Doctors and DFGFI respectively, and all needed travel papers and permits were ready. Looking through behavioral aspect, and motivated by the existing relationship between these four orphans, it was decided to put them in two crates during travel. Kighoma and Amani went into one crate, Mapendo and Ndjingala into another one. A few days before the shipment, the crates were put inside the gorillas’ enclosure in order to habituate them to crates as one of their enrichments and to avoid a strange behavior against crates. They immediately started playing with crates, passing through, climbing and taking food inside them. These crates quickly became a familiar part of these young gorilla’s lives.

goma_02Amani, looking for mischief!

In the morning of the shipment day, we were hopeful that the young gorillas would be happy in their crates, but we were prepared to sedate them if necessary. The caretakers put the milk in crates to encourage them to enter. Mapendo and Kighoma were very excited about the milk, and when they entered the crate to take the milk the crates were simultaneously closed. This was a successful strategy. Unfortunately, Amani became very aware of the situation and refuse to enter the crate. She was sedated with an injection, and put into the crate with Kighoma. As Mapendo became also aware that she was locked in the crate, and was trying unsuccessfully to find a way to out, the team decided to put little Ndjingala in her own crate. All gorillas were successfully crated before 9a.m. – the first hurdle of the move was over!

The crated gorillas were taken to the helicopter in a large truck. Poor Kighoma became frightened and took it out on Amani, but thankfully Amani’s injuries were superficial. Mapendo and Ndjingala were quiet and were even sometimes sleeping during the one hour flight, and all four gorillas were also taking some water from bottles through the open spaces of the crates during the flight. We were all nervous and tense, and very glad when we landed near GRACE.

goma_03Kighoma looking cute.

Once again the little gorillas were moved in their crates on a truck, and when we arrived at GRACE they were placed into a forest enclosure and the doors to the crates were opened. We were all so happy when they came out and looked around their new home. The caregivers tried to give them food from the market like carrots and potatoes, and they took some of it, but were much more interested in the forest! The moved quickly into the bush quite a bit away from the caretakers, playing, climbing trees and even eating some forest plants around them! Amani was a little quiet due to her injuries after Kighoma bit her in the crate, but after some treatment she was back to normal happy, energetic behavior in 2 days.

goma_04Wise little Ndjingala.

The next day these little gorillas ate so much forest food that they didn’t take must of the market food at all! Gorillas enjoyed very much forest food, climbing trees and getting their own food, eating all the time, moving in the forest, rolling on grass and started making night nest in trees. The young gorilla Ndjingala recognized rapidly various forest food became the teacher of old gorillas in the group, especially in showing various forest food, how to handle and eat them. Mapendo, the oldest of them all, was the most interesting in learning from Ndjingala, the baby. It was fun to watch, and such a huge relief for all of us who have been caring for these wonderful little orphans for the past few years. They were happy in their new forest home.

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